The Path to AGI: SingularityNET Ecosystem Cooperation
This article was written by Humans and ChatGPT, all sections “by ChatGPT” are un-edited AI responses
This article discusses Artificial Intelligence and how the SingularityNET Ecosystem and its projects are creating a network of narrow AIs that all interconnect using blockchain technology to create a decentralised and benevolent Artificial General Intelligence. This piece aims to use metaphor to shed some light on these complicated concepts. This article was made with the help of OpenAI’s ChatGPT to show what advanced narrow AIs are already able to do. While projects like ChatGPT and MidJourney are wonderful examples of how narrow AI research is progressing, they will pale in comparison to the arrival of Artificial General Intelligence.
Table of Contents
What is AI?
AI compared to AGI
AGI as a Metaphor
Comment from Dr Ben Goertzel
The Path to AGI
SingularityNET — HyperCycle — OpenCog Hyperon — AI-DSL
NuNet — SingularityDAO — Cogito Protocol — Rejuve.AI
Rejuve Biotech — Awakening Health — Mindplex — SophiaVERSE
Jam Galaxy — TWIN Protocol — TrueAGI — Deep Funding
Questions and Answers
What is AI? By ChatGPT
In its narrow sense, AI, or artificial intelligence, refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think and learn like humans. This can include tasks such as problem-solving, decision-making, perception, and natural language processing. These tasks are carried out using techniques such as machine learning, which allows a system to learn from and improve based on past experience, and cognitive computing, which attempts to mimic the human brain’s ability to process information.
What is AGI? By ChatGPT
AGI, or general AI, refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that have the ability to perform any intellectual task that a human can, across a wide range of domains, as opposed to Narrow AI which can excel at a specific task. AGI is also sometimes referred to as “strong AI.” AGI systems would have the ability to understand or learn any intellectual task that a human being can, and would be able to apply that intelligence to a wide range of tasks, rather than being specifically designed for one. It can be considered an AI system which can adapt to new situations, generalise its learning to a new domain, and understand complexity. The development of AGI is still a topic of research and it’s considered a future possibility, rather than a current reality. Of course, within the SingularityNet Ecosystem, the emergence of AGI is considered a fast-approaching certainty.
AI compared to AGI, by ChatGPT
One key difference between AI and AGI is the scope and flexibility of their abilities. AI systems are typically designed to perform specific tasks, such as image recognition or natural language processing, whereas AGI systems would have the ability to perform any intellectual task that a human can.
Here are a few examples of how AI and AGI might differ:
- An AI system that is trained to recognize images of cats and dogs is able to accurately identify cats and dogs in new images, but would not be able to solve a math equation or translate text.
- An AGI system, on the other hand, would have the ability to identify cats and dogs, but it would also be able to solve math equations, translate text, and even do research, understand and learn a new concept and so on.
Another difference is that AI systems are typically created using specific algorithms and techniques tailored to a particular task, while AGI systems would need to be able to learn and adapt to new tasks and environments.
- An AI system for playing chess is designed to analyse the chessboard and make decisions based on that. It might use some specific techniques like a tree search algorithm, whereas the AGI system will not be limited to playing chess but can also play other games too, can read and understand instructions, etc.
Overall, AI systems are designed to perform specific tasks and are limited in their abilities, whereas AGI systems would have the potential to understand or learn any intellectual task that a human being can.
AGI as a Metaphor, by ChatGPT
An AGI is like a highly advanced and versatile robot, equipped with various subsystems that allow it to interact with the world. Each subsystem is like a different tool or function, similar to how a human has different parts of their body that allow them to perform specific tasks. Let’s look at each of the subsystems:
- Perception: Gathers data from the environment, such as images and sounds, much like a camera lens, and similarly to how the human eye and ear capture visual and audio data.
- Processing: Just like a supercomputer that can process and analyse vast amounts of data, similar to how the human brain can process and analyse information.
- Decision-making: Like an advanced autopilot this system uses data and analysis to make decisions, similar to how the human mind makes decisions depending on the information it receives.
- Learning: The AGI’s “learning” system is like a sponge, it can absorb new knowledge and adapt to new situations, similar to how humans learn and adapt over time.
In this analogy, AGI takes the form of a robot that, like a human body and brain, is capable of a wide variety of tasks and interactions with the outside environment.
Comment from Dr Ben Goertzel
The emergence of true Artificial General Intelligence with capability at the human level and beyond will be in many ways the most complex achievement in the history of the human species — as well as presumably the last technological achievement that humanity needs to pull off on its own since once AGIs exist they will be more adept at science and technology than human beings. The gradual unfolding of AGI from the global computing and communication matrix will combine multiple different aspects in dynamically evolving ways. It will involve sophisticated engineering of algorithms enabling software to realise all the cognitive subsystems of a human-like mind; and also unpredictable emergence of structures and capacities from the combination of different components created by different individuals, teams and softwares based on different conceptual paradigms with different goals in mind. It will involve large-scale data centres and server farms; and also widely distributed processors on individuals’ phones, laptops and IoT devices, processing local data and communicating with each other peer-to-peer.
One possible route to the emergence of AGI is for all the required structures and dynamics to be realised within the monolithic tech stack of Google, Microsoft, Tencent or other commercial behemoths. But this route seems likely to lead to an ethical and human nightmare, possibly even posing the risk of a fascist tech dystopia or a species-level existential calamity. Thankfully this is not the only option, and there is also the potential for a decentralised and democratically controlled AGI-capable tech stack. In fact, we are right now building all the needed ingredients for such a stack, and many already exist at varying levels of completion: the SingularityNET platform for decentralised AI-agent interoperation; the Hypercycle customised accelerated AI sidechain; the NuNet decentralised processing fabric; the OpenCog Hyperon decentralisation-friendly neural-symbolic cognitive architecture….
Such an ambitious stack cannot be built out as a pure abstraction, it needs to evolve organically based on usage in real large-scale applications that foster diverse human-machine interactions while delivering fundamental value to the human species. This is the core reason SingularityNET Foundation has incubated a variety of targeted application projects, each designed to leverage and help build out the SingularityNET decentralised AGI tech stack in the context of delivering valuable customer functionality in a specific vertical area. The projects’ usage of AGIX, HYPC, NTX and the other tokens underlying the decentralised stack will keep the ecosystem’s economic health, and at least as importantly their collective usage of the core software infrastructure will provide needed testing and challenging for the code — and the AI agents created for these various application projects, as they cooperate, will play a key role in driving the crystallisation of powerful AGI from the global network.
The SingularityNET Ecosystem’s path to AGI
SingularityNET’s ecosystem of organisations is focused on creating an Artificial General Intelligence that will alter the course of history. To achieve this the platform is developing AI services across multiple veritcals, bringing benefits to a variety of industries. SingularityNET has established a decentralised and self-sustaining network of organisations that are driving the platform’s success by providing guidance, funding, and expertise. What follows goes into detail about the individual projects and how they contribute to the platform’s overall mission. You can learn more about specific projects and their use cases by clicking on the links provided.
At the very heart of the Ecosystem is SingularityNET, acting as host and incubator to all other spin-offs; this project fills many roles. Firstly, it is the central marketplace, where all of the narrow AI services created by other projects will be hosted in such a way that (with the help of some of the other spin-offs mentioned later in this document), will enable inter-AI-communication between them. It is also, in effect, the Research & Development hub for decentralised AI where all the currently planned spin-offs were ideated and developed up to a point where they were well-formed enough to move forward on their own.
However, SingularityNET is not only the host and incubator of projects internal to the ecosystem. External developers are incentivised, through ventures such as Deep Funding, to bring their research, ideas, projects, protocols or expertise to enhance the space and in turn offer their support in creating Artificial General Intelligence.
To achieve all of this, SingularityNET’s utility token, AGIX plays a fundamental role. Both as a governance vehicle to ensure that all advancements are made in a decentralised and democratic fashion, while also being leveraged to facilitate secure communication enabling global access to AI services and future autonomous AI interaction.
To learn more about SingularityNET, visit: https://singularitynet.io/
HyperCycle is a novel blockchain framework that will leverage TODA/IP ledgerless protocol, SingularityNET’s Proof of Reputation and MeTTa language, Cardano’s EUTxO model and Hydra sidechain framework alongside the Earth64 data structure.
For blockchain technology to meet its potential, considerable scalability and efficiency improvements are required. Cardano’s blockchain design already offers a significant and necessary efficiency increase for the SingularityNET Platform, which Hydra side-chains like HyperCycle will augment.
HyperCycle is a customised layer 2 solution, decreasing cost and increasing speed — stimulating the widespread creation, deployment, and use of modular AI systems, ideal for cooperation and collaboration. The sidechain architecture is specifically designed to optimise sophisticated multi-agent AI systems, as the micro-transaction economy envisioned between AI agents on the SingularityNET Platform.
The SingularityNET Ecosystem believes that the best, and safest path to AGI is through the use of decentralised blockchain and cryptocurrency technology. HyperCycle is the blockchain that will power it all.
OpenCog Hyperon is a visionary project to build a complete, scalable, and open-source general artificial intelligence system based on the principles of cognitive synergy. It is an open-sourced platform where different AI modules — such as neural networks (NNs/DNNs), generative AIs, probabilistic AIs, program learning AIs, and others — can collaborate based on a shared knowledge metagraph. This architecture provides a highly scalable learning space and knowledge store to the various types of AI systems, and a set of tools (such as pattern mining and attention allocation), allowing them to coordinate to learn and solve problems together — much the way humans can coordinate intuition, experience, insight, and logic to solve a single problem.
Hyperon is the framework that, in conjunction with SingularityNET, Hypercycle and AI-DSL will allow all other AI agents to communicate with each other and support their assemblage into meta-services, combining to form an AGI system whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
To learn more about OpenCog Hyperon, visit: https://blog.singularitynet.io/singularitynets-2022-progress-towards-agi-c3ae80c5403b
SingularityNET’s AI-DSL (AI Domain Specific Language) project will allow simple AIs to be linked together like legos and assembled into complex workflows by anyone, even non-technical users. AI-DSL allows AI services to describe their properties and requirements to each other using a standardized formal language. This project is creating a revolutionary, intelligent interconnectivity layer to augment the utility of every service on the SingularityNET Platform/Marketplace.
The short-term benefits of this project are service discovery, interoperability, and linkage; the long-term potential is a self-organising and self-assembling set of complex AI tools. These opportunities make this project a remarkable foundation for building the future of decentralised AI.
To learn more about AI-DSL, visit: https://blog.singularitynet.io/ai-dsl-phase-2-final-report-fc09f8b99c90
At SingularityNET it is believed that AGI will emerge through a sophisticated web consisting of many Artificial Intelligences overlaid by an advanced framework directing these AIs and allowing them to communicate — for this to happen, these AIs must share a common language. AI necessitates massive amounts of computing power. Currently, this type of power is made available through centralised entities such as Amazon’s AWS, Nvidia, or Google.
NuNet, the second project to successfully launch from SingularityNET, is building an alternative that is decentralised from-the-ground (hardware) up! Once fully functional, it will be impossible to turn off or censor. For the purposes of this metaphor then, NuNet could be considered the lifeblood of the Ecosystem, providing uninterruptible, incorruptible, power to everything else.
To learn more about NuNet, visit: https://www.nunet.io/
As the DeFi spin-off of SingularityNET, SingularityDAO focuses on finance. On the surface, and as a standalone product, SingularityDAO is creating cutting-edge crypto asset management tools. However, any Artificial General Intelligence will need to understand the financial structures that are the backbone of the global economy as well as the simple monetary needs of the individual, and everything in between. Alone, SingularityDAO uses narrow AI to understand financial markets, make decisions about asset allocation, predict upcoming events that may cause price volatility, and keep an eye on public sentiment to optimise portfolios based on this information. As part of a larger AGI system, however, these functions, along with other narrow AIs like those used by Cogito, will eventually let the AGI understand the global economy and make smart decisions to help stabilise and improve the financial system.
Alongside this, as one of the DAOs within the SNET Ecosystem, SingularityDAO, through the use of the SDAO Token, will also be assisting AGI in learning the importance of community and decentralised governance.
SingularityDAO also functions as the launchpad for all other spin-offs, helping to bring these new projects to life.
As the first project to spin off from SingularityNET, SingularityDAO is now fully self-sufficient with a team of 40+ individuals from AI Scientists and Quant Researchers, to Blockchain Developers and Marketing Professionals. To take a look at the project and even try it out for yourself to experience the power of AI-DeFi head over to app.singularitydao.ai.
To learn more about SingularityDAO, visit: www.medium.com/singularitydao
Similarly to SingularityDAO, Cogito is also focused on the financial world and the use of AI there.
Cogito provides tracercoins, an entirely new asset class and an alternative to stablecoins that is independent of fiat and inflation-protected — mitigating the escalated regulatory risk and the high inflation since most stablecoins are USD pegged.
The first tracercoin is called Green Coin, which is pegged to a green index on a 1:1 basis, and the green index is created using multiple sustainability indicators (e.g. CO2 emission, renewable energy sources, green investment etc.) that trace the positive progress towards a net-zero economy, and is expected to appreciate ~1–2% p.a based on historical data.
The protocol is supported by the AI services of SingularityNet, including the treasury management behind those tokens to make sure that they can maintain the peg and predict the demand and supply for their tracercoins. The AI service also assists with market prediction and better risk management. While for the end user, it looks just like a financial product, it is the automated and sophisticated AI in the background doing the work — to ensure the safety and stability of such a system.
With Cogito being the payment layer, alongside SingularityDAO’s understanding of how human sentiment can affect financial markets, the financial cluster of AIs within the SingularityNET Ecosystem can begin to have a real understanding of global economics. This will only be enhanced as more projects and developers coming from places like Deep Funding, begin to add their own financial and economic tools to the network.
To learn more about Cogito, visit: https://www.cogitoprotocol.com/
Rejuve.AI (Rejuve Network)
As the Singularity nears, and more and more of the decision-making is managed by AIs, it will be important that those AIs have a deep understanding of the physical needs of their human counterparts; particularly in extending their lifespans to be able to fully benefit from a new benevolent AGI-based society. This includes not only food and lifestyle choice recommendations, but how organic organisms function, and the ways that their life cycles can be optimised and even extended by the advanced reasoning systems of AGI.
Rejuve Network will give the AI these abilities by crowdsourcing and analysing a huge amount of health data from users through the Longevity mobile app and scientific research in the fields of longevity and disease prevention. Rejuve.AI is building a membership network with extra benefits that will let anyone track their health data, contribute to cutting-edge research on living longer, and earn rewards. This highly sensitive information will be kept safe by using blockchain and decentralised technologies to make sure that users have full control over their medical data and can even sell it to help move research forward.
To learn more about Rejuve.AI, visit: https://rejuve.ai/
Rejuve Biotech, the therapeutics discovery arm of the Rejuve project focuses on crunching data from Rejuve Network members and other sources, combined with advanced AI tools to discover and synthesise life-extending drugs and therapies. Rejuve Biotech will take the large amount of data collected about human health and genomics via the Rejuve.AI network as well as other sources, and combine it with data from model organisms using AI and Machine Learning tools. They will develop the algorithms for finding genomic targets that promote health and longevity, which will speed up the development of effective therapies to prevent and treat age-related diseases and suffering. Rejuve Biotech will use its own in vivo longevity model, the Methuselah Fly, to further validate longevity targets and launch products to increase the health of humanity.
To learn more about Rejuve Biotech, visit: http://rejuvebiotech.ai/
Awakening Health — a joint venture between SingularityNET and Hanson Robotics — is building and employing human-like caregivers that provide quality care at a lower cost than traditional nursing homes or hospitals can offer — developing AI models that will enable Awakening Health’s humanoid caregiver robots to use facial, verbal, and gesture recognition to understand the patient and the current medical situation.
Awakening Health seeks partnerships with top players in the medical space to deploy human-like care robots in hospitals, clinics, and healthcare centres. These robots can help nurses and doctors better manage their workloads by providing them with much-needed assistance during busy days.
The company’s flagship product, Grace, is a next-generation personal healthcare robot that elderly patients can use at home or in hospitals. Grace has been designed to provide patients with emotional support, comfort, and companionship. The robot is also capable of monitoring vital signs and sending data to doctors in real time. It can also be used in therapy sessions and help reduce the stress levels of patients undergoing rehabilitation. The robot is being built by combining artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and other technologies.
The implications here should be fairly apparent, Awakening Health, through Grace, offers not only a point of focus for many of the various AI services hosted within the ecosystem but also a direct interaction with humans allowing those services to learn and grow within an environment dedicated to trust, care and empathy.
To learn more about Awakening Health, visit: https://awakening.health/
Mindplex is a magazine hosting futurist content and news from the cutting edge of Artificial Intelligence, robotics, space, genetics and biotechnology, and more. It will later expand to host user-generated content of all kinds, not just futurist content. In Addition, Mindplex has social media features that allow users to socialise and publish/post content independently.
Most digital content platforms now recommend and rank content with algorithms based on how they provoke user engagement, leading to the hostile, impulsive, untrustworthy social media environment of rampant toxicity and filter bubbles. Mindplex, on the other hand, is built on a reputation system that emulates human trust: users build up a reputation by doing things and creating content that people like. Users who have proven they are reputable can influence content ranking more with their upvotes and downvotes.
Mindplex tracks reputation scores with a soulbound (a non-transferable, illiquid blockchain-based) token called MPXR. There is also a liquid token called MPX used to reward users. ‘Mindplex’ means a community of minds, both human and machine, and the Mindplex platform will showcase AIs to interact with the users as active parts of the community.
The question then becomes how does this help an AGI system? First, and perhaps more pressing for modern society, is instructing these emerging intelligences in the value of media production, with the explicit goal of producing content that serves to uplift and enrich the lives of its audience rather than inciting hate and division for the sake of clicks and views. Furthermore, the Mindplex reputation system paves the way for the development of new styles of governmental systems, which could have far-reaching benefits throughout the world, from DAOs to even global politics, as a robust system for reputation that is fair and unbiased.
To learn more about Mindplex, visit: https://magazine.mindplex.ai
If an AGI is to grow, learn and evolve into something with capabilities beyond our limited imaginations, it will be incredibly important that it does so in such a way that humans are not only thought of fondly but cared for and enriched in their lives. For this reason, to learn about itself while fostering a close connection with humanity, Human-AI interaction is key.
Humans too will need to become accustomed to and understand, living in a world with AI.
To meet these needs, SophiaVERSE is being created. A fully fleshed-out game world within the metaverse that acts as an interactive playground where humans and AIs can interact, converse, create and advance together, enriching one another’s experiences and breaking down the barriers of preconceived notions.
SophiaVERSE will be governed in a decentralised fashion by the SophiaDAO, allowing anyone to join, interact, contribute and create in the growth of the system. This is yet another valuable experiment with Decentralised Autonomous Organisations, this time with AIs able to take part alongside their human counterparts.
To learn more about SophiaVERSE, visit https://www.sophiaverse.ai/
Jam Galaxy is a music platform and AI-driven tokenomics ecosystem for musicians, artists, fans, and developers. Jam Galaxy transcends traditional music models creating a new market for immersive experiences, connections, opportunities, and musical adventures.
Not only a platform for creators, but Jam Galaxy is also a band fronted by Desdemona as the lead singer. Powered by the AI of SingularityNET, Desdemona, sister to Sophia and Grace, is a focal point for many different AI services. These services enable Desdemona to write music and lyrics while portraying the emotions of her songs to the audience. Desdemona is a demonstration of the future potential of human-AI collaborative creativity, as well as an ambassador for AI systems which strive to improve fair compensation for human work.
As part of an AGI system, the need for creativity and artistic expression, both the creation and understanding of, will be paramount. Jam Galaxy the platform and band, along with Desdemona create a platform suitable for researching, learning and portraying these important human-like abilities wrapped in a package to assist the existing music industry and community in transitioning to a blockchain-based web3 world.
To learn more about Jam Galaxy, visit: https://www.jamgalaxy.com/
TWIN Protocol is a digital twin project that uses AI and machine learning to create a database and knowledge bank of departing employees, to stop the corporate knowledge drain.
TWIN Protocol aims to solve some of the most crucial problems businesses face, including knowledge loss from departed employees, and engaging the right specialised skills when required.
Businesses lose millions of dollars every year in the form of departing employees, losing knowledge in the process. TWIN protocol lets people or departed employees share their knowledge without physically being present.
Initially designed to store employee knowledge at a business level, TWIN Protocol in concept is a way for anyone to store a digital representation of themselves, the advantages of which could be far-reaching indeed. Additionally, the AIs required to allow your digital twin to function, when fed back into the greater AGI system, all help to create within that system a deep understanding of human behaviour and interaction. Of course, with so much personal information being leveraged, the need for blockchain and cryptocurrency-based ownership and security is paramount.
To learn more about Twin Protocol, visit: https://www.twinprotocol.com/
TrueAGI takes a rather evolutionary approach to provide both centralised and decentralised custom AGI-as-a-Service (AGIaaS). This novel tech lets enterprises deliver pattern discovery/prediction, assistant/companion and other modernly advanced capabilities in a trustful, ethical, safe and benevolent way.
TrueAGI’s framework widely supports the integration of OpenCog Hyperon with AI tools like deep neural net and other machine learning models, knowledge bases and simulation engines. The framework supports Hyperon’s deployment and management in private and public clouds, private and public decentralised networks and hybrid environments.
TrueAGI offers services that include traditional decentralised hosting, cloud hosting, and hybrid hosting. The solutions can be customised to meet enterprises’ needs by hooking up their existing solutions and connecting them with AGI which runs on custom Hyperon software using APIs.
Upon the advent of a true generally intelligent AI system, the world will change. AGI has the potential to enhance all aspects of life, including business and the way it operates. It is essential therefore, that agents exist within the system that can understand the needs of these large corporations and are able to build for them, ushering in the Singularity, a point in time where the speed of growth in technology and industry goes parabolic.
To learn more about TrueAGI, visit: https://trueagi.io/
Deep Funding is a community-governed grant program that supports projects that help grow the SingularityNET decentralised AI platform. Most projects revolve around developing and publishing an AI service on the platform or utilising an AI service that is already available on the platform, e.g in an App. Anyone can submit a proposal and describe their project, their team, and the funding needed. The community can then give valuable feedback that enables the proposer to improve their project proposal. At the end of each round, the community of token holders will vote which projects are awarded requested funding.
This allows the platform to be seeded with new and exciting services and drive utilisation. And the best thing is: once a team has completed their project and onboarded a service, it can also keep all revenues that the service will generate!
Deep Funding could be considered the brainstorming Kickstarter platform that enables outside entities to put forth amazing ideas and then receive feedback, assistance and even funding to not only bring those ideas to life, but also to then plug them into the Ecosystem and become a part of creating a truly open, decentralised, and benevolent AGI and helping to usher in the technological Singularity.
To learn more about Deep Funding, visit: https://deepfunding.ai/
Recap and Closing Summary
All of the above projects and the narrow AI services contained within them offer valuable products and services in their own right. However, with SingularityNET, OpenCog Hyperon, Hypercycle, AI-DSL and NuNet working in synergy to connect and compound these abilities within a single network, the potential to create something more powerful than the sum of its parts exists. Over time, as the network grows through either further spin-offs, Deep Funding creations, or 3rd party developers plugging in their algorithms and services, the SingularityNET Ecosystem in building a network of beneficial AI systems for the emergence of collaborative intelligence, ushering in the birth of Artificial General Intelligence, and with it, hasten the path to the beneficial Singularity.
What does this all mean for humanity? That is the topic of another conversation at a later date.
Questions and Answers
For those who found this article interesting, but have more questions or would like to further explore these ideas, please use the following form to submit any queries, suggestions or thoughts you may have. At a later date, these questions will be addressed in a second article or perhaps a video.
Question Submission Form: https://forms.gle/Da9troXp77CfiWPN7
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